📕 subnode [[@karlicoss/nutrition]] in 📚 node [[nutrition]]

Table of Contents

related [[qs]] [[health]] [[diet]]

human macro metabolism [[metabolism]] [[humanbody]]

  • fat reserve: 30K-100K kcal
  • glycogen reserve: about 2K kcal
    • muscles: 1400-2000 kcal
    • liver : 400 kcal


Once glucose is inside the liver, glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate, or G6P.
G6P is further metabolized into triglycerides, fatty acids, glycogen or energy.
Glycogen is the form in which the body stores glucose. The liver can only store about 100 g of glucose in the form of glycogen.
The muscles also store glycogen. Muscles can store approximately 500 g of glycogen.
Because of the limited storage areas, any carbohydrates that are consumed beyond the storage capacity are converted to and stored as fat. There is practically no limit on how many calories the body can store as fat.

Once your glycogen stores are full, your body stores excess calories from carbohydrate as fat.
Excess calories from fat and protein intake get stored as fat in the body as well.
Adipose cells, or fat cells, store the extra calories in the form of triglycerides, a type of fatty acid.
Most of these fat cells are found between your skin and muscle while others surround your organs
Everyone has a different number of fat cells, but it's the size of the cells that matters more



  • unsaturated fats are considered more healthful than saturated fats, and it is recommended that the majority of one's fat intake be unsaturated. This is naturally achieved, for example, by consuming vegetable oils.

    • controversial?
  • There are at least two known exceptions to the rule that unsaturated fats are good and saturated fats are bad. The first exception is trans fat, which is a kind of unsaturated fat that increases levels of LDL and the risk of heart disease. Trans fat is found in small quantities in animal fat, and in much larger quantities in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, as may be found in processed foods. The prevailing recommendation is to consume little or no trans fat.

  • The second exception to the "unsaturated good, saturated bad" rule is found in medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). MCTs are found in large amounts in coconut oil. MCTs are generally believed to be especially healthful fats, and in particular have been found in some studies to promote fat burning and decrease appetite.

  • Saturated fat, as an all-inclusive category, has not yet been shown to beneficially or adversely affect heart health. That being said, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated have been shown to improve heart health. So saturated fats are worse relative to the unsaturated fats, but they are not bad at all. [examine]


  • The body stores the excess protein or carbs in a person's diet in form of fat, specifically, as triglyceride molecules, which consist of just three kinds of atoms: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. For people to lose weight, their triglycerides must break up into building blocks, which happens in a process known as oxidation.

  • triglyceride oxidizes (burns) + O2 => CO2 + H2O + energy?

    • e.g. to burn 10 kilograms (22 lbs.) of fat, a person needs to inhale 29 kg (64 lbs.) of oxygen. And the chemical process of burning that fat will produce 28 kg (62 lbs.) of carbon dioxide and 11 kg (24 lbs.) of water, the researchers calculated.
  • You might be wondering why fat molecules get broken down into glycerol and fatty acids if they're just going to be rebuilt. This is because fat molecules are too big to easily cross cell membranes


  • amount of fat cells is always the same, they just get bigger


ketosis [[keto]]

Whenever you stop eating, your substrate preference will be about 2/3 fat and 1/3 carbohydrates. Those carbohydrates will come from stored glycogen in your liver and muscles.
When those glycogen stores run out, the liver will try to defend the blood glucose through gluconeogenesis, synthesizing glucose from amino acids from protein broken down elsewhere in the body and glycerol from triglycerides. This metabolic phase is characterized often by decreases in blood sugar and associated tiredness and hunger. It is also the phase in which muscle catabolism progresses at the fastest pace.
However, 12-24 hours after running out of glycogen, the body will gradually go into ketosis, in which the liver synthesizes ketone bodies from fatty acids. These ketone bodies can substitute and/or replace glucose in the metabolism, reducing the need for breakdown of protein for amino acids for gluconeogenesis. After a couple of days the substrate preference will have changed to 90% fat and 10% carbohydrates, thereby reducing muscle catabolism strongly. This state can be maintained for as long as there is enough fat. The longest documented therapeutic fast was 385 days during 100+ kg weight loss in an obese patient. Mind you that a kg of bodyfat contains enough energy to go for 3-6 days depending on body size and activity level.
Ketosis and relying predominantly on fats will continue until only the essential bodyfat stores are left at approximately 5-7% in men and 10-14% in women. At this level the substrate preference for fats disappear and muscle catabolism increase sharply again. At this point death will usually occur within very few weeks.


Gluconeogenesis highly prioritizes fat metabolism for energy when carbohydrate based sources of glucose are low/empty.
The entire purpose of fat is to be an energy source when other sources are low, whereas the purpose of muscles are either locomotion or stability.
It would be hard to imagine evolution leaving you as an atrophied blob of fat in an emergency situation.



lcohol (pure ethanol) calories are just like any other calorie
alcohol is metabolised to Acetaldehyde (which is toxic and makes people feel like shite), and then to Acetic Acid which is metabolised into AcetylCoA, which then substitutes into the Krebs cycle (with oxaloacetate) as normal and is used to produce energy at a cellular level


when you ingest alcohol the body then uses as the preferential source of energy, and as a result burning of any other macronutrients is suppressed, which makes them more likely to be converted to fat and then stored rather than used for energy.

muscle and tissue: amino acids

Zinc supplement? [[nutrition]]

wonder I was short on salt lately? (end of january) [[nutrition]]

CREATED: [2018-02-01]

high sodium should be accompanied with high potassium?? [[nutrition]]

supplementing magnesium, iodine [[keto]]

Consider supplementing with vitamin D and probiotics. Levels of magnesium, iodine and vitamin K2 should also be optimized. Iodine can be obtained from seaweeds. You probably don’t need a multivitamin or other supplements.
Many low-carb diet authors recommend supplementing B and C vitamins with extra-strong dosages. If you are on a ketogenic diet, with only 20-30g of carbs a day, you could go as high as 2000-3000% of NRV for B and C vitamins.

figure out fiber composition in bread [[nutrino]]

[2018-06-28] healthy foods that shouldn't be consumed together? [[nutrition]]


Review my most frequent meals to correct micro and see if there are any conflicts [[nutrino]]

Try fasting for a day

spinach vitamins

Шпинат достаточно богат железом и кальцием, однако усваиванию этих микроэлементов организмом в теории мешают фитиновая кислота и особенно оксалаты, которых в листьях шпината больше, чем в каких бы то ни было иных овощах. Согласно теоретическим моделям взаимодействия химических веществ, при нормальных условиях (отсутствие выраженной гипокальцемии) организм в состоянии усвоить не более 5 % кальция, содержащегося в шпинате[20]. Из всех овощей и фруктов шпинат представляет собой источник кальция с наименьшей биодоступностью[21].
Вместе с тем, практические эксперименты не всегда подтверждают эти теоретические выкладки. Например, в одном из экспериментов была установлена более высокая усваиваемость железа из шпината по сравнению с железом из не содержащих оксалатов пшеничных отрубей[22].

Carotene + fat? [[nutrition]]


Морковь является богатым источником витамина А, который относится к группе жирорастворимых витаминов – для его усвоения в кишечнике он должен сначала соединиться с желчью. Выделение желчи, в свою очередь, зависит от жирности продукта: чем жирнее продукт – тем ее выделяется больше. Сама по себе морковь – продукт нежирный, а значит, и желчи выделяется мало, и витамин А усваивается плохо. Добавление сметаны значительно повышает уровень жирности, желчь начинает выделяться в больших количествах, что в разы увеличивает усвояемость витамина А.
hmmm.. interesting

roiboos minerals [[tea]]

лол очень смешно, как про ройбуш пишут что он очень богат минералами, хотя в нем по сути нет вообще почти ничего, каки-то доли процента от нормы


Optimal protein level? [[nutrition]]

[2018-01-06] protein in bodyweight exercise [[exercise]]

apparently the general recommendations are still from 90 to 150g

Vitamin B [[vitb]]

[2017-11-29] make sure I get enough vitamin B in absense of bread? [[nutrino]]

[2017-11-29] vitamin B5: acne? [[nutrition]]

[2017-11-30] figure out if I am getting enough B vitamins [[nutrino]]

Vitamin D

vitamind half life https://www.reddit.com/r/nutrition/comments/7yabir/how_long_is_vitamin_d_stored_for/ [[nutrition]]

Do i need to up vitamin d?

ok, take 2x just in case

fish is 50K years old? interesting… [[fish]] [[nutrition]]

Humans have a 2 million year history of meat consumption, ever since we started hunting and experienced a dietary transition as a result. Nut consumption is 800k years old. Fish consumption is 50k-10k years old. Agriculture is 40k-10k years old depending on source

lost nutrients while cooking [[cook]]


Check out this USDA paper which compares the nutrient levels of various types of foods and cooking methods. Specifically, on page 6, there are lines which provide comparisons of various cooking methods and their nutrient retention rates. Check the line:
You can see in the table that there are only two nutrients that lose significant quantities due to cooking, vitamin C and folate, with losses of 25% and 30% respectively. However, if you cooked the greens and drained the cooking water, then your losses would be greater (45% and 40%).
These are averages of course so slightly undercooking the greens will save more of the vitamin C and folate while overcooking will result in more losses than in the USDA paper.

10% of fat is converted to glucose http://www.seriouseats.com/2015/05/food-lab-how-to-grill-steak-cuts-of-steak-marbling-salting-charcoal-technique-resting-tips.html [[keto]] [[metabolism]]

CREATED: [2018-02-01]

[2017-11-29] Sugars affect your blood sugars [[nutrition]]

and since they are carbs they have the same caloric value and no other nutritional value. Sugar alcohols are artificial sweeteners and have no impact on blood sugars. They have lesser calories too. Sugar alcohols have a laxative effect when taken in excess tho.
Yes its bad for you. Despite being in good shape, the repeated effects of high insulin spikes will certainly damage your liver/ other organs in the long run.

[2018-01-06] will all fat get absorbed? [[metabolism]]

You don't absorb 100% of the nutrients in your food, if you gorge on lots of food with a decent amount of fibre a lot of it will go through you without being absorbed, especially the fat. On the other hand oily diarrhoea is usually even more unpleasant than portion control.

[2018-01-06] protein synthesis after exercise [[nutrition]]


[2017-11-30] figure out impact of food processing on vitamins [[nutrition]]

[2018-01-01] figure out ways to get more calcium [[nutrino]]


[2018-06-30] leptin – made by adipose cells, helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger [[metabolism]]

obesity – decreased sensitivity to leptin

[2018-07-01] B12 binds to a protein in saliva with protects it against stomack acid [[metabolism]]


cholesterol and satfat [[metabolism]]


LDL penetrates arterry walls to transport cholesterol

LDL and HDL are cholesterol transporters!

LDL is suseptible to oxidation and oxidised, harmful to the body, which makes white cells desptroy them

TLDR: Saturated fat increases lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in the blood when compared to carbohydrates, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. apparently good metastudy from examine

ratio of LDL to HDL is more important!
Those ratios matter more than your absolute numbers for LDL-C, HDL-C, and even total cholesterol.

TLDR: it's complicated, not clear entirely and probably depends on diet in general (eating processed food, omega, etc)

https://examine.com/nutrition/ [[metabolism]]

skipping breakfast [[exercise]] [[nutrition]]

Note that if you do exercise fasted, consuming at least 20 g of protein within the two hours or so following your workout becomes even more important, to help build or at least preserve muscle mass. – okay…

https://examine.com/nutrition/fresh-vs-frozen-vs-canned-vegetables/ [[nutrition]]

Some micronutrients are bound in our food so tightly that our bodies can’t shake them loose for digestion. Others are just hard for our bodies to absorb. The ease with which a nutrient comes loose and gives up its goodies to our bodies is known as its bioavailability.
Cooking can increase the bioavailability of some nutrients and decrease that of others, and so can meal composition. 

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/index.html [[metabolism]]

Gut biome, living bacteria

make yogurt?

Make kombucha?

Friendly bacteria: do we really need to eat probiotic yogurts?


alco metabolism https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/1g9clk/can_anyone_accurately_explain_alcohol_colories/cai0kdx/

https://www.reddit.com/r/ketoscience/wiki/fiber [[fiber]] [[keto]]

hmm, interesting..

https://www.reddit.com/r/ketoscience/comments/8xqkrr/how_much_fiber_do_we_really_need_to_consume_in_a/e26g3k1/ hmmmm [[fiber]] [[nutrition]]

oxalates? track them in nutrino? [[nutrition]]

hmm maybe search stuff on health/nutrition/exercise stackexchange. bullshit is less likely than on reddit? [[nutrition]]

https://ryanatkn.github.io/nutrients-per-calorie/#/compare [[nutrition]]

[2018-07-17] mandragara comments on Why are carbs important?


 ome hunter gatherer cultures consume higher protein\lower carb diets.
The different balance is not enough to get them into ketosis.
Too much protein knocks you out of ketosis. Also traditional societies tend to eat their meat quite fresh, which means it still has glycogen content.
A ketogenic diet needs to contain mostly fat to keep you in ketosis. Such an abundance of fat is a relatively new phenomenon I believe. You basically need 4 calories fat to 1 calorie of protein.

[2018-06-10] ketosis | Optimising Nutrition https://optimisingnutrition.com/category/ketosis/ [[keto]]

[2018-07-17] jrcoreymv comments on carbohydrates and weightlifting…how important are they?


Speaking from personal experience, very low carb diets ruin my workouts. I'm on my 3rd week of Keto (carbs under 25g/day) and every one of my workouts has been a struggle. My lifts have decreased, some substantially. If you're not following a strict low-carb diet, I'd suggest eating some carbs if you want good workouts.

hmm try higher carb diet?

[2018-07-17] WetWalrus comments on carbohydrates and weightlifting…how important are they?


  carb cycle. So every 5th day I'll eat 350g to 400g of carbs in one day and on every other day I keep my carbs down to around 50g or 75g.

The day right before I carb load my muscles look noticeably flatter which I attribute to glycogen depletion, and getting a pump seems almost impossible. I especially notice it in my arms (both the flatness and inability to get a pump). However, the day after my carb loading day, every thing looks much fuller and I can get a ridiculous pump just from a warm-up set.

Those are the main things I notice.

[2018-07-17] StormyTUNDRAwolf comments on What are the benefits of carbohydrates?


In my unprofessional view I feel as If I have allot more physical endurance when eating carbs. Eg: When I'm in ketosis I'd only be able to surf for an hour then I feel weak When I'm on normal recommend macros I could spend 2+ hours in the water

[2018-10-03] SuppVersity - Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone [[nutrition]]


[2018-08-25] The Ultimate Keto Food Swap List | KetoDiet Blog [[keto]]


[2018-08-25] Keto Diet Food List | KetoDiet Blog


[2019-12-05] Implausible results in human nutrition research | The BMJ [[nutrition]]


Implausible results in human nutrition research

recommended by reddit

[2019-12-05] Nutrition offers its resignation, and the reply | Hacker News [[toread]]


The real issue is, and the author's real point (whether he knows it or not), is that non-scientists don't, and currently mostly can't, know anything about nutrition.

[2019-08-27] Nutrition: the Emperor has no clothes | Meaningness [[nutrition]]

TLDR: nutrition is bad science

[2017-06-28] milk

  • Humans are the only animals who consume milk after having started eating solid food
  • Lactose is milk sugar. Can't be absorbed, must be digested by lactase. Lactase production decays after childhood (since body thinks it's no longer needed). Northern races are more lactose tolerant than sourthern.
  • You can buy lactose-digesting enzymes in liquid form now

[2017-06-17] Ginkgo biloba [[supplement]]

according to that, mostly useless?

  • Took for a month, no noticable difference. Although didn't do any cognitive tests

[2019-12-21] GrimGrains — Nutrition


[2018-06-27] FDA recognised new types of fiber? [[nutrition]] [[fiber]]


In the new FDA guidance, approval was given for designation as fiber for:
mixed plant cell wall fibers
inulin and inulin-type fructans
high amylose starch (resistant starch 2)
resistant maltodextrin/dextrin

[2018-08-27] Eating nuts caused tooth decay in hunter-gatherers [[nutrition]] [[paleo]]


[2018-07-17] right, so tryglicerides are glycerol + 3 fatty acids [[nutrition]]

can te fatty acids be arbitrary
ok, maybe not arbitrary, but some fats got both sat and unsat apparently
ah, ok, so trig is unsaturated if one ore more fatty acids is unsat

[2018-07-23] axcho comments on Soluble vs insoluble fiber in Complete Foods [[fiber]] [[nutrition]]


You'd probably do well to include a mix of prebiotic fibers to support a diverse range of microbes, as Ample does - here are some commonly available options:
tapioca starch, raw potato starch, green banana powder (resistant starch)
oat bran fiber (beta glucans)
psyllium husk (mucilage)
acacia gum (gum)
pectin (pectin)
inulin (fructan)
You may find that you have a negative reaction (lots of gas and bloating) to one or more of these options. I stopped using inulin and tapioca starch in my products at Super Body Fuel because so many people had really bad gas from them. But if you can tolerate them, they're great.

Taking probiotics can also help if you're having bad reactions to certain fiber sources, though it's pretty hit-or-miss. You may have to try a number of different brands to see what works for you.

[2019-10-05] Anyone only eat food? (not taking supplements) /r/nutrition

Rule of thumb. Every week, eat veggies from every color of the rainbow

https://www.reddit.com/r/ketogains/wiki/index#wiki_protein_and_the_ketogenic_diet [[read]] [[keto]]

protein and ketosis

Although there are no hard and fast rules for how much protein can inhibit ketosis, some individuals have reported trouble maintaining ketosis if they consume too much protein per day, or even excessive amounts of protein at a given meal.
To the contrary, some individuals have eaten 1.2 grams protein/lb or higher and had no problems establishing and maintaining ketosis.

l;dr: excess protein is not carbs and probably isn't all that bad. Part of it gets turned to ketones, part of it gets used directly for energy, and part gets turned to glucose. The story is very complicated, and that being said, some people swear by limiting protein to maximize fat loss, and maybe it works, but the story isn't so black & white.
📖 stoas
⥱ context